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 Review: Chapter 2

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frankhuang
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PostSubject: Review: Chapter 2   Mon Sep 15, 2008 12:04 am

This is here to help you review the chapter, not to help you plagiarize material.

Source: http://apush1.9.forumer.com/index.php?showtopic=88

Beckyyamane wrote:

Chapter two:
#25: Jamestown/Virginia Company
ID: In 1606, James I issued a charter to a group of London merchants and gave them permission to colonize in the southern area of America. 104 men sailed up the Chesapeake Bay and established Jamestown on a bank of the James River. However, they chose their location poorly, and many of the settlers caught Malaria. They weren't too interested in establishing families, and the lack of women made Jamestown feel less like a community. They committed themselves to searching for gold to pay back investors at home, and were quite unsuccessful. Things were not looking good until John Smith became leader in 1608 and saved the colony from complete failure. Farming techniques taken from the Indians also contributed to the colony's survival. Meanwhile, the London Company started calling itself the Virginia Company and obtained more land from the king to expand in Virginia. Jamestown experienced a starving time in 1609 and again, was close to extinction, until Lord De La Warr happened to come to the colony and become governor. Tobacco cultivation became an important part of Jamestown life but led to encroachment on Indian territory. Attempts at supressing the Powhatan Indians (who resented the English) failed and led to bankruptcy of the Virginia Company. Jamestown was put under the crown by James I in 1624.

Historical Significance: Jamestown was the first, surviving settlement established by the English in North America. It led the way for future colonization by the English in the "New World." People in England began to see America as a place to escape from the religious intolerance and surplus population at home. England's rising merchant class also began to express interest in expanding trade to other locations; colonies in America would suit this interest perfectly.

#26: Tobacco – John Rolfe/Sir Walter Raleigh
ID: Tobacco was first found through the Cuban Natives smoking small cigars [inserted into nostril]. In 1612, John Rolfe, a Jamestown planter, began an experiment with tobacco in Virginia. He produced high quality crops that sold very quickly. Sir Walter Raleigh was able to establish a colony on what is now North Carolina [Roanoke Islands] which he called Virginia, where tobacco was first established as a crop.

Historical Significance: Tobacco kept Virginia from deceasing when it first began.
Tobacco cultivation called for territorial expansion because tobacco growers needed large areas of farmland to grow their crops and tobacco exhausted the soil after only a few years. This made the English farmers claim more land deeper into the interior of America, isolating then from the center of European settlement at Jamestown and gaining more and more of the natives’ lands. John Rolfe and Sir Walter Raleigh, then, worked together to expand into the new lands. Raleigh established the colony of Virginia and Rolfe used his tobacco to [maybe unintentionally] expand the English land. Tobacco also helped the Virginia Company financially, however, not enough to keep the company from going under. Even with tobacco cultivation, there were still no profits from the new land. Because tobacco was of such great value, many individuals found it more advantageous to own slaves and thus, slave trade became more popular as well.

#27: Barbados Slave Code
ID: The Barbados Slave Code was established in 1661 to set up the future development of slavery of the island of Barbados. The Code implemented certain laws regarding the status of slavery, etiquette of shareholding, and the rights (or lack thereof) of slaves. Although under this law, slave owners had to clothe and feed their slaves, otherwise the slaves were completely deprived of any rights that were generally granted to citizens of the time period. The slave was completely under the control of the master and subject to whatever jurisdiction and punishment the master chose.

Historical Significance: The slave code set a precedence for the laws of slavery in the newly developed colonies in America. It is under the same basic premise that slaves were held in the Americas. Slaves were to be clothed and fed, but otherwise were completely bound to their masters and subject to their treatment.

#28: Chesapeake
ID: The Chesapeake (located in present day southeast United States) was first settled by the English during the 17th century (i.e settlements such as Jamestown and Roanoke), but goes a long way back with the native Algonquian indians whom named it after the native word "Chesepiocc". The Chesapeake being an estuary and having a humid subtropical was not a very ideal place for settlement (Jamestown was almost a failure).

Historical Significance:
The area of the Chesapeake was the location of the first attempt(s) of an English (permanent) settlement(s) of the English, and therefore led the way to further English expansion in to the East Coast of present day United States.

#29: The House of the Burgesses
ID: The House of Burgesses was Virginia's own form of self-government and was established in 1619 after the founding of Jamestown. The House of Burgesses was a legislative body that was modeled after Parliament in England and consisted of the Governor, his council and Burgesses (representatives of other areas). It gathered annually at Jamestown until 1699, when it moved to Williamsburg. In 1769, the House of Burgesses was dissolved.

Historical Significance:
The House of Burgesses was significant for a variety of reasons; It was highly significant in that it was a newly introduced idea for government that many other colonies of other nations would have not embraced. It's establishment displayed the English isolation from the king and thier own approval of limited monarchy. This was caused in part by either direct harrassment from the king or Acts/laws made by the crown that displeased members of the colony. The House of Burgesses was also a haven for revolutionists until it was dissolved whenceforth revolutionists gathered in Raleigh Tavern

#30: Act of Toleration
ID: Act of Toleration also known as "Act Concerning Religioin" was a policy adapted by The Calverts in 1649 Maryland. The policy guaranteed freedom of worship to all Christians.

Historical Significance: It was the first time any colony allowed freedom of religion which allowed more immigrants to travel to America. Which helped make America more diverse in religion and people.

#31: Squatters
ID: Squatters were people who occupied land for their own profit, as opposed to a need for the land itself. It is especially common in urban areas, and it may have existed back in the days of colonization in order to provide a way for countries to establish as much land as possible for themselves.

Historical Significance: Squatting symbolized the drive and desire that the Europeans had to squander each and every last acre of land from each other. Techniques such as squatting showed their need to defeat one another, and it foreshadowed possible conflicts in the future. Because there were so many people competing for a limited amount of land, tensions were definitely a big issue that held dormant violence.

#32: Restoration
ID: The term referred to Charles II’s returning back from exile, claimed the English throne and restored monarchy in England in 1660 after the “protector” Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 (During the English Civil War, Cromwell led the Roundheads, defeated and executed King Charles I). The Stuart (Charles II) Restoration reestablished monarch rule over England and remerged economic, social order and stability. Shortly after his restoration, Charles II quickly issued charters for four new colonies in America: Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania to proprietors, which led to a new colonization era when proprietors and permanent settlements replaced private companies and quick commercial success.

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE:
The Stuart Restoration rebuilt social and economical order in England, in contrast to the unrest when the rebels were in control. Because the economical and social order triggered economic growth, it further encouraged colonial settlements, which required huge amount of money and other resource, to increase the national and personal wealth. Because the English enjoyed peace back home and were no longer looking for quick commercial success, the mentality of new settlements changed to permanent settlement, and land ownership; in addition proprietors, whose focus was on the power of land replaced the not profitable out-of-business private companies.

#33: Indentured servant/”Headright” system
ID:
Becoming an indentured servant was a form in which someone could repay a debt through labor contract. They would work for someone for a period of time. The Headright system was a system which granted land to settlers moving into the New World.

Historical Significance:
Indentured servants helped in the making of the English economy in the New World (mainly tobacco). The indentured servants were not entirely similar to slavery. Although indentured servants could be treated the same as slaves, they were still in a way “free” and were supposedly taken care of by their masters.
The headright system was used primarily by the Virginia Company and the Plymouth Company. They would give 2 headrights (50 acres of land) to any colonists, immigrants who payed for passage would receive 1 headright, and anyone who payed passage for an immigrant would receive 1 headright. This headright system would bring many more English to the New World to secure the survival of the colonies.
The connection between Indentured servants and the "headright" system was that the headright system brought many more people to the New World as indentured servants due to the immigrants not having any housing. The wealthy landowners would pay passage for indentured servants and earn more land, thus establishing a fine line between the rich and poor of society.

#34: Bacon’s Rebellion
ID: The land owners of the tidewater region were in conflict with the land owners of the backcountry because the backcountry owners were settling on Indian land. The reason for holding the line of settlement determining Indian and backcountry land was supposedly to not anger the Indians. It was actually to protect William Berkley’s fur trade with the Indians. Nathaniel Bacon, a backcountry land owner and a member of the governor’s circle, during this time was angry at Berkeley for excluding him from the Green Spring Group and the Indian fur trade. In 1675, Doeg Indians attacked a western plantation. Bacon, angry at the government’s reluctance to help struck back at the Indians with a small army. This was known as Bacon’s rebellion. Later, Bacon took his army to Jamestown and almost conquered Virginia but died suddenly.

Historical Significance: Bacon’s Rebellion showed the reluctance of settlers to follow the rules of settlement with the Indians. The Indians showed that they would retaliate against the intrusion into their land. The tensions between the backcountry land owners and the Tidewater land owners were demonstrated in this rebellion. There were a large amount of men who where unemployed and without property. These men were proved to be unstable because of their primary involvement in Bacon’s Rebellion, this turned interest to slave labor to avoid using these men to work.

#35: Joint stock
ID: Joint Stock is when Companies issue certificates of ownership or stocks, in return for contributions to the company. The people who receive these are called shareholders. Joint Stock started with the London Company, who began to call themselves the Virginia Company. They raised additional capital over the colony, by selling stock to adventurers in England, who would say in England but share in the future profits. They also offered stock to “planters” who would go to the new colony and set up a lifestyle.
Historical Significance: The London Company was one of the first to use joint stock, in which they would sell stock to investors, so they were an example for future companies. Also they helped make a mass migration to the new colony by selling settlers stock in order for them to go over to the colony. This helped encourage more people to go to the colony, and establish a population and permanent settlement.

#36: Primogeniture
ID: a law stating that the eldest son inherits the entire estate of his parents, including their wealth and title to various ownerships. The Normans, from Normandy, initially established this tradition, and brought it to England in 1066. Since the eldest son was destined to become heir to the entire estate, the younger sons decided to emigrate from England to the United States.

Historical Significance: As a result of the eldest son becoming heir to the entire estate, the younger sons, especially those from the English aristocratic families, immigrated to the United States. Upon arriving, these individuals wanted to reform the inheritance system, by implementing the manorial system. Almost every colony from the original thirteen colonies included the primogeniture system, but it did not last for very long. The New England colonies slowly reduced the power of the primogeniture system, and after the American Revolution, it was permanently removed. The southern states, on the other hand, continued with primogeniture, until the majority of the familial population decided to divide the estate through wills. The American Revolution’s theme of freedom, caused the demolition of primogeniture and, as a result, the familial lifestyle continued at a peaceful pace with each child receiving equal rights and ownership.

#37: John Smith = Pocahontas (Powhatan Indians)
D: Captain John Smith was a famous world traveler while Pocahontas was the daughter of the great chief Powhatan. John Smith was saved by Pocahontas when the Powhatan Indians captured him and sentenced him to be executed. The Powhatan Indians, the local Indians to the Virginian settlers, resisted the expansion of the English colony. For two years, Sir Thomas Dale led unrelenting assaults against the Powhatan Indians and in the process kidnapped Pocahontas. When Powhatan refused to ransom her, Pocahontas converted to Christianity.

Historical Significance: The attacks between the natives and the settlers eventually led to the demise of the Virginia Company. The Virginia Company was the first English settlement in the new world, but was destroyed due to the profitless venture and the aftermath of the Indian uprisings.


Last edited by frankhuang on Mon Sep 15, 2008 3:27 am; edited 2 times in total
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PostSubject: Re: Review: Chapter 2   Mon Sep 15, 2008 12:06 am

Beckyyamane wrote:
#38: James Oglethorpe
ID: Gen. James Oglethorpe was a Member of Parliament and military hero, who helped found Georgia. He wanted to make a border against the Spanish lands in the area which is now Georgia, and he wanted to make it a refuge for the impoverished. He also wanted the prisoners in England to come to America and farm the land in his new colony, but he did not allow slave labor. He established strict rules that did not let the colony developed as quickly as the other colonies.

Historical Significance: After Oglethorpe resisted all demands from his colonists, he realized he needed to make a change, and he allowed slaves to be brought into the colony to help farm the lands. He loosened his grip on the colony and Georgia was able to slowly begin to grow. It started to develop similar to the ways of South Carolina, and by 1770, there were 20,000 non-Indian residents, more than half of which, were slaves.

#39: Lord Baltimore / George Calvert
ID: George Calvert, born in Yorkshire, England in 1580 was given the title of Lord Baltimore after converting to Catholicism in 1624. Unhappy with the oppression forced upon English Catholics by the Anglican establishment, Calvert dreamed of establishing a colony in America to provide religious freedom to Catholics. He purchased land in Newfoundland, but the hopes for the colony were destroyed in a war with the French. In 1628, Calvert returned to England and requested a new land grant, which he received south of the James River. Conflicts with the Virginia Company drove Calvert to request yet another grant. Unfortunately, he died before the charter was granted.

Historical Significance: Calvert’s first attempts to found a colony for the benefit of the Roman Catholics in England eventually lead to the establishment of the colony of Maryland by George Calvert’s sons, Cecilius and Leonard Calvert. Maryland became one of the first colonies to adopt a policy of religious tolerance when the second “An Act Concerning Religion” guaranteed all Christians to worship as they wished. Maryland became a model for upcoming colonies in the New World, moving America towards the separation of church and state.

#40: Predestination
ID: Predestination was produced by a Swiss Theologian, John Calvin. Calvin rejected the Catholic belief that people's actions could affect an individual's prospect for salvation after death. He said that God selected some people to be saved and condemned others to damnation. That each person's destiny was determined before birth. As a result people could not change their own predetermined fate, but they were allowed to attempt to know them. Calvinists (believers of Predestination) believed that the way people who live a life of or have no existence in the society would be damned and the people who live a life of success would be saved. This created a strong incentive to lead a virtuous, productive life.

Historical Significance: The idea of predestination created new religious groups like the Puritans, who were the religious groups that crossed the seas to the colonies because their ideas weren't accepted in England. The Puritan extremists (Separatists) were the people that sailed on the Mayflower and landed and lived at Plymouth. Some of the New England Colonies, like the Massachusetts Bay Colony, followed the predestination religion. There were also cases like Anne Hutchinson who spoke out against the idea and was banished from Rhode Island.

#41: Town Meeting
ID: House of Burgesses met for first time on July 30, 1619. This was the first meeting of an elected legislature, a representative assembly.

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Town meetings allowed representatives to discuss the on goings of their community. Meetings were held democratically. This was a place where decisions were made regarding public officials, public construction and even taxes.

#42: Visible Saint/”elect”
ID: Visible saints were people who appeared to be godly Christian people who were to go to heaven when they died. Visible saints who were "elects" were believed to be specially chosen people by divine will for salvation.

Historical Significance:
Puritans in colonial days only allowed visible saints to worship with them because they thought that the church of England was impoused for allowing everyone to worship in the same way. Of many devoted Christians, Anne Hutchinson stands out. She antagonized the leaders of the Massachusetts Bay colony stating that the clergy were not of the "elect" and that they had no right to exercise their authority over other peoples congregations. She spoke out against all save John Cotton and her own brother-in-law saying none were among the elect. Huthinson developed a large follower group and attracted supported of many sorts who also oppressed the oppressive nature of the colonial government. She was eventually banished by John Winthrop as a lady not fit for their society but her unorthodox views pushed the seperation of the colony to what we now know as New York and New Hampshire.


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PostSubject: Re: Review: Chapter 2   Mon Sep 15, 2008 12:07 am

Beckyyamane wrote:
#43: Blue Laws
ID: The original “Blue Laws” were a set of laws governing the activities on Sunday (Sabbath) for New Haven, later inducted into Connecticut; these laws were set up by Gov. Theophilus Eaton with the assistance of the Rev. John Cotton in 1655.

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: New Haven ability to set up their own laws and enforce them was one of the first examples of independence from the strict laws of Britain. In years to come New Haven would serve as one of the main promoters of complete independence from Britain.

#44: Congregational Church
ID: Congregational churches were first started in Massachusetts and were churches that chose their own minister and regulated their own affairs. This form of organization differed greatly from the centralized Anglican structure of churches in England.

Historical Significance: The congregational church greatly reflects the colonists' religious wants and needs that were not offered by the Anglican church structure of England. And because the only people who could vote or hold office in Massachusetts were church members, the congregational churches had a huge influence on political aspects of the colony, contributing to the theocratic society that developed in the Massachusetts colony. This eventually led to the enforcement of strict religious practices which prompted many to leave Massachusetts, creating new colonies, many of which observed religious tolerance.

#45: Pilgrims vs. Puritans
ID: Plymouth, the first permanent settlement in New England was founded by the early English settlers, any of English Puritans and Pilgrims. They were originally known as the Forefathers or Founders. The Separatists are known as the Pilgrims and the Non-Conformists are known as the Puritans. In England Pilgrims and Puritans were both called "Non-Conformists" by the state Church of England and also suffered persecution by the state and the church. While the Pilgrims lost hope in politics and believed in the separation of the church and state, Puritans had strong belief that in time the state would heed to the advantage of the Biblical principles of God, and thus the Puritans put forth their hope, time and effort in politics. Puritans sought to reform, and establish a middle course between Roman Catholicism and the ideas of the Church of England.

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Both the Puritans and the Pilgrims arrived to America to spread the Gospel and to live under religious freedom. They lived to declare the glory of God and to convert many others to Christianity. As they had hoped, in a couple of years, the spreading of the Gospel feverishly grew. Though Puritans and Pilgrims differ in their opinions about politics and important issues, their main goal of spreading the Gospel unites them and because of this, they were able to accomplish their task as pilgrims chosen by God.

# 46: Mayflower Compact
ID: The Mayflower Compact was a document written while the Mayflower was in Provincetown Harbor. When the Mayflower got to America they didn’t land where they intended on landing. Because it was so late in the year they didn’t go on. They realized that they couldn’t legally be where they were so, they wrote the Mayflower Compact in which they pronounce their loyalty to the king and instituted a “civil government.” It was signed by 41 male Separatists that came over on the Mayflower.

Historical Significance:
The Mayflower Compact helped the Plymouth Colony to survive because it provided a government for the colony. One reason that the Mayflower Compact is important is because it was written by those who would be governed, like our constitution was. John Quincy Adams called it, in a speech he gave in 1802, “the foundation of the U.S. Constitution.”

#47: Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
ID: The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was a constitution drawn up by Thomas Hooker, John Haynes, and Roger Ludlow and the people of the Hartford community in 1639. It consisted of a brief, clear, and compact preamble with eleven orders of law. This governed the citizens of Connecticut until 1662.

Historical Significance: Some historians claim that the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was the first written constitution in western history. It could have also paved the way for the U.S Federal Constitution which holds some similarities with the Fundamental Orders. A constitution is supposed to be based on the rights of individuals and the Fundamental Orders did state these types of rights. It also states that all free men can take part in electing their magistrates and they used secret paper ballots like we do today. Although the Fundamental Orders did hold some similarities with the U.S constitution, Connecticut was not a democracy.

#48: Quakers
ID: Quakers, or The Society of Friends, were a splinter group of Protestants. They originated in the mid-1600s and were based on the preachings of George Fox and Margaret Fell. They did not believe in predetination or original sin, believing that people had an "Inner Light" inside them that could guide them to salvation. They had no church government or clergy and allowed women and poeple of lower status to join. One of their members, William Penn, helped the unpopular group journey to start a colony in America, named Pennsylvania.

Historical Significance: The Quakers colonized the state of Pennsylvania. The pattern for the city, Philadelphia, would be the blueprint for many other cities in later times. Pennsylvania's Charter of Liberties created a representative assembly and would influence the Constitution later on.

#49: William Bradford
ID: William Bradford was a famous man among the people in Plymouth Plantation. He did many things for the people in the Plantation and led to the well-being of the people.

Historical Significance: The first thing William Bradford did for the Plantation was to gain permanent settlement in their already inhabited area of New England. He pleaded with the "Council of New England" to let the Plantation stay at Plymouth. Then he gave families equal amounts of land to farm on ending the harsh labor they had previously been under. He then took the debt the colony owed England and with a few others payed it all off.

#50: John Winthrop
ID: John Winthrop was the chosen Puritan governor for the Massachusetts Bay Experiment. By nature, he was a university-educated gentleman, pious and forceful. He was a key figure in organizing the migration of the Puritans and he also commanded the expedition in 1630 which sailed for New England with 17 ships and 1, 000 people. He personally carried the charter of the Massachusetts Bay Company during the migration.

Historical Significance: He led the largest single migration of the 17th century. By personally keeping the charter, colonists were not responsible to any company officials in England – they were independent. His expedition helped produce new settlements and the Massachusetts Bay Company transformed into a colonial government. With a theocratic system, the Congregational Church was able to form. Through Winthrop’s efforts, a stable society with a strong religious and political hierarchy developed.
Those who wished for a different, less strict religious society moved out of the settlements to form another colony – namely, Connecticut.


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PostSubject: Re: Review: Chapter 2   Mon Sep 15, 2008 12:07 am

Beckyyamane wrote:
#51: Roger Williams
ID: Roger Williams was the founder of Rhode Island, which was founded in 1644. He founded Rhode Island because of religious dissent. He wanted the separation of Church and State because in those days the line between them was very hazy. He also wanted to sever all allegiance to the Church of England. The clergy did not want to so he started his new colony, Rhode Island.

Historical Significance: This figure is important in American History because he is an important figure of religious dissent. He is the embodiment of the protestant spirit. He saw what was wrong with the clergy and wanted to change it. That was what Protestants did they protested, hence the name. Roger Williams also started the first real colony with religious tolerance.

#52: Anne Hutchinson
ID: Anne Hutchinson was a woman who lived in Massachusettes and was a dissenter. She argued that the Massachusettes clergy had not undergone a conversion experience and therefore unqualified to hold a cleric office. She antagonized the leaders of the colony by saying that everyone except her brother in law should not be a clergyman. She also challenged the role of women in Puritan society and had a large following among women and was able to keep John Winthrop from getting re-elected as governor. She was tried for heresy later and banished to Rhode Island. She died in 1643 in New Netherland in an Indian attack.

Historical Significance: Anne Hutchinson directly challenged the long held beliefs of the Puritan society and the leaders who upheld them. By doing so, she is standing up to authority, and because of her feminist views, she was also important in speaking out for women of the colony. She opposed the oppression of the colonial government and her banishment caused the church and the powerful men to further clamp down on religious freedom in Massachusettes. This led to a large exodus of her followers and led to the later estalishment of New Hampshire and Maine.

#53: New English Confederacy vs. Dominion of New England
ID: The New English Confederacy was created by deputies from Plymouth colony, Connecticut, New Haven, and Massachusetts after the Pequot War. It established that the colonists had come in search of religious freedom and was supposed to form a friendship between the colonies. It declared that no colony was to be admitted without the Union’s consent, and two members from each colony would make up the board. The confederation also had to do with defense; if there were attacks on colonies, the colonies nearby would provide aid. Massachusetts was the leading colony, and sometimes acted as if it was an independent nation. When Massachusetts refused to comply with the Navigation Acts, Charles II took the colony under control of the crown and established the Dominion of New England. The Dominion put Massachusetts, the rest of the New England colonies, New York, and New Jersey under one government and made Sir Edmund Andros the governor of the entire area. When Mary and William succeeded James II, the colonists in Boston took away Andros's power. Mary and William also put an end to the Dominion of New England, and established separate governments in the colonies once more.

Historical Significance: The fact that the New England colonies banded together to create the New English Confederacy proved that they were able to form a representative assembly and function as a unit against outside forces. When the colonists rebelled against the Dominion of New England and took away Andros's power, they showed that they had rights in their government. However, their overthrowing of the Dominion put the colonies even more under control of the crown, which could potentially cause tension and problems.
*footnote*
for future reference
"When the colonists rebelled against the Dominion of New England and took away Andros's power, they showed that they had rights in their government."
elaborate on vague ideas like this
like how did it show they had rights?
its a strange leap to make from rebellion to rights

#54: William Penn and Pennsylvania
ID: William Penn, the son of an admiral in the Royal Navy, inherited his father’s inheritance which included a grant of territory between New York and Maryland in 1681. This area was larger than England and Wales put together and contained more valuable soil and minerals than any other province of English America. Many settelers flocked to Pennsylvania (named after his father “Penn”) making the land very well inhabited. Penn made Pennsylvania what he called a holy experiment. He wanted to establish a society that was godly, virtuous and exemplary for all of humanity.

Historical Significance: Pennsylvania had the first little revolution of the new colonies and began the representative assemblies.
Some residents of Pennsylvania were beginning to resist the nearly absolute power of William Penn. The South complained of the government being unresponsive to their needs so they emerged to challenge Penn. In 1701, Penn agreed to the Charter of Libertieswhich established a representative assembly. William Penn was very polite to the natives and reimbursed them for their land. Philadelphia (“Brotherly love”) became a role model for later cities in America because of its rectangular streets. Pennsylvania prospered because of Penn’s successful recruitment, his thoughtful planning (holy experiment and treatment of the natives) and the Pennsylvania’s mild climate and fertile soil. Wiliam Penn first set out to find land for the Quakers who were being mistreated all around the world. This made Pennsylvania very diverse as, already containing Swedes and Finns before being founded, more Quakers from different colonies annd countries immigrated as well.

#55: New Amsterdam
ID: New Amsterdam was a 17th century Dutch settlement (eventually present day New York), it was first settled in 1614 by Dutch settlers. The area became formally recognized as a Dutch colony in 1624 after years of surveying by both the Dutch government and private corporations (Dutch East Indies Company, most notably). It became a haven for fur trade and other economical activities that sparked interest of the Americas in Europe. Later on in 1664, the English formally conquered and occupied the settlement renaming it "New York", in honor of the Duke of York. The city continued to prosper and evolved into a key city during the Revolutionary and eventually America's largest city today.

Historical Significance: New York today is a sprawling metropolis with hundreds of high rise building, a sprawling population and dazzling city lights. It is hard to imagine such a large city had humble beginnings as a Dutch trapping town. The city is not only significant because in hindsight, it developed into one of the largest cities in the world, but it also signaled the end of Dutch influenced and settlements in America.

#56: Glorious Revolution
ID: The Glorious Revolution occured due to the already unpopular king of England, James II, exercising superior power over Parliament. The final blow came as the king announced that his son (heir to the throne) would be raised as a Catholic, which induced fears about religious freedom. William of Orange and Mary (Jame II's daughter) championed the king and in a bloodless coup, assumed power.

Historical Significance: Absolute Monarchy in England virtually dissapeared when Parliament passed the Bill of Rights. In the American colonies, the Dominion of New England broke apart due to the recognization by the colonists of the weakness (at the moment) of the English empire, which led to rebellion.

#57: Proprietary vs. Royal colony vs. Charter Colony
ID: Proprietary colonies were colonies given to a one or a group of owners who had complete authority over the colony. On the other hand Charter Colonies were individuals or charter companies that usually intended to create a sort of business in the new world. These companies did not have absolute power over the colony but the colony was rather ruled by the colonists. Royal Colonies were colonies specifically ruled by the Crown and had no individual nor colonial government but was controlled by governors issued by the Crown.

Historical Significance:
Most colonies were issued originally as Proprietary colonies or Charter colonies but when Virginia, originally a proprietary colony, and other proprietary colonies were made Royal Colonies, many colonists objected. this provided a spark to begin the revolutionary war.

#58: Plymouth Colony
ID: The first pilgrims to land on Plymouth Rock was in 1620. There friendly relationship with the natives helped them survive the hardships of the New World. They were a very poor colony but kept their hopes up high because of God.They got their charter rights in 1621 and appointed William Bradford as governor.

Historical Significance: Plymouth colony was one of the first enduring colonies to arrive in the New World not to seek riches but for a haven from the religious persecutions. They were also one of the first to treat the natives friendly and live happily alongside with each other.
#59: Massachusetts Bay Colony
ID: The Massachusetts Bay Colony was a venture based on a few Puritan merchants’ hopes for an economic enterprise and a religious safehaven. In the 1620s, tensions resulted in the king, Charles I, oppressing the Puritans in England and disbanding Parliament in 1629 in trying to establish the superiority of Roman Catholicism. John Winthrop was chosen as the governor, and in 1630 many people, including families, set out and created many towns. All officers had to be re-elected each year. In terms of religion, they never technically broke from the Anglican Church but had a Congregational Church with standalone congregations. There was little separation of church and state. They prospered more than Jamestown. Many colonies were built from Massachusetts, i.e. New Hampshire and Connecticut.

Historical Significance: The Massachusetts Bay Colony was one of the first colonies of England in North America, and it existed in sharp contrast to Jamestown because of its success and sociopolitical stability. Their quest for religious freedom represented the problems going on in England at the time, and foreshadowed future strife and colonies being born for the very same reason. Winthrop and the founders thought of Massachusetts as a “City on a Hill,” and in a sense it was a model for all of the other colonies to build on. After all, it was stable and freedom. The Mass. Bay Colony was significant in its family life, too, because instead of living solely on men like in Jamestown, they actually brought forth families to start a stable permanent settlement.

#60: Pequot War/King Phillip's War
ID: The Pequot War was in 1636-1637 between the Massachusetts Bay & Plymouth colonies with their allying Indian colony, the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes all against the Pequot tribe.
King Phillip's war, also known as the Metacom's War or Metacom's Rebellion was an armed conflict between natives and English colonists. King Phillip is the leader of the native tribe that attacked.

Historical Significance: The Pequot war was a huge wipe out of the Pequot, showing the Native Americans what European warfare is. This war also showed the Europeans forming alliances with other Native Americans .
King Phillip's War ended with the Europeans losing over 600 men and the Indians losing over 3,000. Hundreds of natives were captured and either sold as slaves or tried and executed. This war ended much of the Indians sovereignty in New England.
The connection between the Pequot War and King Phillip's War is the cause and effect of European invasion of Indian territory. The destruction of the Pequot showed how the Europeans destroyed the natives and tried to take their homeland while the King Phillip's War is the opposite of the Pequot War. In King Phillip's War, the natives rebelled and fought back the oppression of the Europeans.

#61: Restoration Colonies
ID: The Restoration Colonies comprised of New York, Carolina, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. They were given by Charles II to courtiers after thirty years of little colonial activity. The reason for the lack of colonial activity is because of The English Civil War in England in which the English were to busy with matters at home.

Historical Significance:
American settlements learned from past colonial experiments that colonies that were run by companies did not make money at fast rates. The courtiers, who were granted land from Charles II, established proprietary rule in the colonies instead of governments similar to Virginia and Maryland. The new colonies were not determined to attain financial triumph but rather create a permanent settlement. By this time privately owned companies lost interest in colonies because profits were slow to be made.

#62: Leisler's Rebellion
ID: Leisler’s Rebellion was led by Jacob Leisler, a German immigrant and a prosperous merchant who had married into a Dutch family. He never gained a role in the colonies ruling class, and like Nathaniel Bacon, Leisler resented his exclusion. When he heard of the Glorious Revolution in England and the fall of Andros, Leisler raised a militia and captured the New York city fort, and driving the governing Francis Nicholson into exile. Leisler tried to stabilize his power in the colony as governor but was never able too, and after two years a new governor was appointed by the king and queen of England, and Leisler was charged with treason by his political opponents.

Historical Significance: Leisler’s brief reign as governor, was long enough for his political enemies to charge him with treason. He was hanged alongside his son-in-law for this. After this rebellion a fierce rivalry between Leisler’s followers, the Leislerians and the opposing people, the anti-Leislerians. The tension between these two dominated the politics in New York for years to come. They would contend for power over the colony until a permanent governor would arrive in later years.
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PostSubject: Re: Review: Chapter 2   Mon Sep 15, 2008 1:28 am

WHOA WHOA WHOA
were not having a ch1-2 TEST are we?
it was just the quiz and thats it right?

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PostSubject: Re: Review: Chapter 2   Mon Sep 15, 2008 1:28 am

I'll sticky this for future use. We're done with chapter 2 for now, yes?

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PostSubject: Re: Review: Chapter 2   Mon Sep 15, 2008 2:00 am

APUSH tests are cumulative I believe.
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PostSubject: Re: Review: Chapter 2   Mon Sep 15, 2008 4:46 pm

That looks way too detailed for a set of notes. I had two pages on MS-Word, for chapters one and two combined.
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PostSubject: Re: Review: Chapter 2   Mon Sep 15, 2008 4:54 pm

WOW, Frank. Not plagiarizing, right? (;

I like their forum! It looks like Soompi.
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PostSubject: Re: Review: Chapter 2   Mon Sep 15, 2008 5:58 pm

Hu's_on_Fifth wrote:
That looks way too detailed for a set of notes. I had two pages on MS-Word, for chapters one and two combined.

you probably wouldn't want to reread this to study, but refer to it if you forget certain key figures or events.
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PostSubject: Re: Review: Chapter 2   Mon Sep 15, 2008 6:02 pm

There's always the "ctrl+F" function. That may help.

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PostSubject: Re: Review: Chapter 2   Mon Sep 15, 2008 9:32 pm

Thank you Frank and Becky cheers !
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