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 Review: Chapter 1

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frankhuang
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PostSubject: Review: Chapter 1   Mon Sep 15, 2008 12:01 am

This is here to help you review the chapter, not to help you plagiarize material.

source: http://apush1.9.forumer.com/index.php?showtopic=76


Beckyyamane wrote:
Chapter One:
#1: The Aztecs/Incans/Mayans
ID: The Aztecs, Incans and Mayans were the previous native american inhabitants of Latin America(central) and South America before the Spanish conquered them. These Indians had complex civilizations and had writing systems, religion and a organized government. After the Europeans came, these civilizations were wiped out due to disease and war.

Historical Significance:
These Civilizations are significant for 3 primary reasons: they illustrated the population and technologies of the previous Native American inhabitants, they disproved the european ideas of "savages" and these native americans would become the ancestors of the posterior generations until today and would affect Central and South American politics for hundreds of years. These civilizations were complex and had a variety of technologies that aided agriculture and thier own personal being. As a complex society, they were not the kind of "savages" that the europeans beleived them to be. Even so, Native americans and mixed races were oppressed for many years. this oppression had a large effect on government of these areas

#2.: Cahokia Mound Builders
ID: The Cahokia Mounds were built by the Cahokia Indians. Cahokia was a major trade city. It is located near the present day St. Louis. In 1200 A.D. the population had grown to 40,000 people. The rich lands of the Missippi River Valley and the mounds created lots of permanent settelments.

Historical Significance: The Cahokia Mound Builders were significant because they built large mounds in the rich soil of the Missippi River valley. The mounds were effective ways to grow plenty of healthy crops and make them into a major trade city. Which helped the settlers grow and increase their prosperity and also the mounds are still used in modern day now.

#3: Pueblo Indians
ID: The Pueblo Indians were a group of natives that were encountered by the colonist Don Juan de Onate in 1598 during his colonizing venture in the modern-day New Mexico. These natives were subjugated, and the new arrivals demanded their tribute in labor and goods. In 1680, however, the Pueblos revolted because of an effort made to suppress their own religious rituals (not Catholic), and the Spanish were driven out for a short amount of time, but came back and ended the small revolution in 1696. The Spanish then tried to baptize the Natives at birth and let the rituals go on.

Historical Significance: The Pueblo Indians represented the majority of Indians that encountered European settlers. They were seen as inferior, and were put to work for the profit of the newcomers. Their revolt symbolized the tension that existed all throughout America, especially with a small ruling class imposing their views harshly upon a large populace of Indians. The Pueblo revolt was a lesson to the Spanish and Europe in general that such tensions could erupt dangerously, so intermarriage after that increased as the Spanish acted slightly less harsh toward the Natives.

#4: Encomienda System
ID: First used in dealing with the Moors in Spain, the system was structured by the Spanish Crown to build trusteeship with the Conquistadores, in which the Conquistadores were able to exact labor and tribute from the natives; in return, the Conquistadores were asked to enforce stability and spread Catholicism in America. The system differs from slavery and feudalism because it respected the lands as Indian/Native’s possessions (which the Spanish failed to do in reality). Despite its order-maintaining intention, the system was a failure as conquistadores like Don Juan de Onate of New Mexico violated the rules by taking over Indian lands and forcing the natives to be free laborers or slaves, rising conflicts between the natives and the Spanish.

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE:
It was the first major organized laws, came with substantial colonizing, that was applied in the New World. It symbolized and disproved the Spanish belief of establishing a ruling class over the large Indian population instead of trying to outnumber them, as wars and tension rose between the natives and the Spaniards when the conquistadores enforced harsh treatment, took over lands, and exact free labors from the natives. It was abolished in 1791 and replaced by repartimiento and hacienda as the Spanish realized that land ownership was more profitable than acquiring cheap labor force.

#5: Conquistadors
ID: The conquistadors were Spanish conquerers that came to the New World in search of gold, treasure, and riches. These conquistadors were not only originally suppose to conquer the America but also to bring civilization and the word of God to the natives. Blinded by their ambition, they slaughtered and decimated many of the natives.
Some famous conquistadors include Hernando Cortes, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, and Juan Ponce de Leon.

Historical Significance: The conquistadors' discoveries in the New World brought the Spanish great power and influence along with riches in gold, silver, and spices, making the Spanish one of the strongest empires in the 15th and 16th century. The conquistadors conquest in America destroyed most native populations through raids and through smallpox. Many surviving natives were subjugated and sold off into slavery. The conquistadors also destroyed records of natives resulting in little knowledge of native cultures.

#6: Maize
ID: Maize is another name for corn. It was localized only in the Americas until the discovery of the New World. To the American indians maize was one of their most important staples.

Historical Significance:
Maize (corn) was originally grown in the New World by the natives before the arrival of the Europeans. In the 15th century this crop began to spread to Europe and the rest of the world. Maize is now one of the most grown crops in the world because it is a versatile product that can be used for the basis of many other products.

#7: Three sister farming
ID: Three Sister Farming is the farming of Beans, Maize (corn), and squash. It is called the three sister farming because these three crops are called the three sisters, and are grown together, because each one benefits from the other. The maize provides structure for the beans to climb, the beans provide nitrogen to the soil which benefits the other plants, and squash flows out on the ground, maximizing sunlight, and eliminating the amount of weeds.

Historical Significance: The Three Sister Farming is significant, because it was a type of agriculture that the Indians used. The Indians shared this technique with the settlers, which allowed them to grow food in the unfamiliar land that the new settlers did not know how to plant in. Also the crops were new to the settlers as well, and they were able to take them back to their original homeland, and share them with their country.

#8: Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
ID: the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed at Tordesillas, a village in Spain, on June 7, 1494. It was a contract between Portugal and Spain to settle the conflicts over the lands explored by the Portuguese and Spanish 15th century explorers. Pope Alexander VI, in 1493, fixed Spain with the lands 320 miles west of Cape Verde, while the Portuguese received the lands east of Cape Verde.

Historical Significance: the purpose of the treaty was to solve the disputes that were taking place after Christopher Columbus returned to Spain. The Spanish-born Pope Alexander VI solely granted Spain the New World, so as to spread Christianity through Christianizing the native peoples. This made the Spaniards think of themselves as the superior reformers, who had to take any methods of correction to rectify the natives religious beliefs, thus causing the impending abuse and enslavement of the native peoples.

#9: Columbian Exchange
ID: The term is used to describe the enormous widespread exchange of plants, animals, foods, populations, diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres after 1492. The most profound result of the exchange was the importation of diseases, which caused millions of deaths. However, not all aspects of the exchange were bad. The Europeans introduced important new crops and domestic livestock to America while the whites learned new agricultural techniques and also discovered new crops. The exchange also created a complex racial hierarchy due to intermarriage between native women and European men. The Columbian exchange also started slavery in America, from the Indians to the imported Africans.

Historical Significance: The Columbian Exchange greatly affected almost every society, bringing destructive diseases that depopulated many cultures, and also circulating a wide variety of new crops and livestock that, in the long term, increased rather than diminished the world human population.

#10: The Enclosure Movement
ID: The people of Tudor England suffered from a harsh economic transformation of the countryside. Many landowners converted their fields into grazing land for wool because of the worldwide demand for wool, therefore causing the serfs and rent-paying tenants to be out of work and become beggars. It also made England lose a great deal of its food supply.

Historical Significance: By making people become unemployed and losing land from cultivation, the enclosure movement caused England to have a surplus population, and made England have a very restricted food supply for a growing population. However, out of this movement rose a new merchant class that opened up England to foreign trade, and chartered companies began to sponsor expeditions to other parts of the world.

#11: Merchantilism
ID: Mercantilism is a concept of economic life that is based on the theory that the nation as a whole is what controls the economy, not individuals within that nation. Mercantilists believed that the principle goal of an economy should be to increase the nation’s total wealth, meaning that they must take the wealth from other lands because of the idea that the wealth of the world is finite –for one nation to gain a capital means that another nation will lose that same capital.

Historical Significance: Mercantilism fueled the colonization effort because colonies provided a resource for goods that may otherwise have had to be bought from other nations. Purchasing goods from colonies kept the wealth earned from trade within a single nation, thus preventing the loss of capital to other countries. In America, mercantilism played a major role in the development of modern day capitalism. Internationally, it led to European imperialism.

#12: English Reformation-Puritans/Church of England/Separatists
ID: King Henry VIII created the Church of England because he requested a divorce with his wife from the Catholic Church, but they did not allow it. Henry then cut all his ties with the Catholic Church and created the Church of England, which was all the same teachings as Catholicism except without the Pope.The Puritans were a part of the established church, however they disagreed with many of its ceremonies, attire, altars and episcopal hierarchy. They also wanted to exclude people from the church who were not committed. Puritans believed they had a covenant with God to lead a religious experiment in the New World. Separatists were very extreme Puritans who wanted to completely break away from the Church. They even questioned the validity of the Church, so inturn they were cruelly persecuted by the Church. They left for Holland in 1608; however they were unhappy with the Dutch, so they came to America in 1620 and landed in Plymouth Bay.

Historical Significance: The Puritans brought with them many good qualities such as self-reliance, frugality, and industry that influenced social and economic life in America. They also highly valued education, which was important in the development of the US. They Established the Congregational Church and held democratic town meetings. (Puritans) Fought for tolerance of religion. The Pilgrims (separatists) settlement in New England led to an alliance with the neighboring Native Americans (Wampanoags) who taught them how to cultivate corn, where to fish, and to give thanks at the harvest (Thanksgiving).


Last edited by frankhuang on Mon Sep 15, 2008 12:32 am; edited 1 time in total
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frankhuang
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PostSubject: Re: Review: Chapter 1   Mon Sep 15, 2008 12:02 am

Beckyyamane wrote:
#13: plantation model of colonization
ID: Transplantations of English society in a foreign land with rigid control over native populations.

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE:
Settlers tried to build a complete society of their own, with people from England. The new society would live in an area separate from the Natives. This concept did not work.

#14: The Cuoreurs de bois
ID: The Cuoreurs de bois were a French group of adventurous fur traders and trappers who explored vast parts of the US. The developed an extensive trade system that benefited many of the colonies and Indian tribes of the US. Commonly traded items between the indians and French included knives, tomahawks, vermillion, mirrors, beads, wool and linen cloth, gunpowder, lead, guns and numerous other items. Beaver, mink, muskrat and fox pelts, bear and racoon skins, deer hides and buffalo robes were such items that the Native Americans exchanged for trade goods.

Historical Significance: These trappers/traders acted as trading agents for the Algonquins and the Hurons. They helped form what eventually led to become the French colonial economy. Successful partnerships and alliances were often created between the French and Indians to help against the conflict with the Indians own enemies, the Iroquois, and the English in contest for control of the new world. The fur trade also helped enlighten the other advances the French made such as the agricultural estates formed along the St. Lawrence River and the development of trade and military centers at Quebec and Montreal.

#15: The Black Legend
ID: “Black Legend” was a term used by Spanish author Julián Judería in his 1914 book La Leyenda Negra, which centered on the malicious practices of Spanish Imperialists. Throughout the book, Julián states and sometimes exaggerates the actions of Spanish conquerors, colonists, and missonaires to be cruel, inhumane, and intolerable in light of the civilized Western world.

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: La Leyenda Negra was part of a growing trend of anti-Spanish literature starting in the 16th century ending towards the regime of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco. Black Legend gave a perspective of Spanish imperialism that had been sheltered from the ears and eyes of the public for so long; the book detailed so meticulously the actions of the conquerors that the public’s view of imperialism changed completely. No longer was imperialism the glory it was cracked up to be, instead imperialism represented a shell of lies that was filled with greed and power.

#16: Mestizos
ID: Mestizos are people of mixed race, resulting from intermarriage amongst Spanish colonists and the native Indians. The mestizos population soon dominated (in number) the Spanish colonies.

Historical Significance: The dominance of the mestizos population reflects the frequency of intermarriage in colonial Spain, which suggests a lot about the nature of Spanish colonization. Unlike the later English colonies, where colonists usually came with their family, the Spanish colonists were mostly men who had to find companionship in native women. Therefore, the line between races grew less distinct, leading to a social hierarchy based on wealth and influence. This form of colonization differs greatly from the English "transplantations" which created a more self-contained society separate from the native population.

#17: Iroquois Confederation
ID: Iroquois is an important confederate of the Native American tribes of the Iroquoian language family and of the Northeast culture area. Iroquois Confederation was found in the late 16th century and consists originally of five tribes; the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, and Seneca. The confederacy came to be known among Europeans as the League of Five Nations until Tuscarora was admitted to the alliance and became to be known as the Six Nations. The term Iroquois means “real adders” derived from an Algonquian word. The Iroquois had an agricultural economy, based mainly on corn, squash, beans, and tobacco. Each Iroquois town contained several long, bark-covered public longhouses. Along the structures’ inner sides the families of a clan lived in semiprivate section; the central areas was used as social and political meeting places.

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The councils were democratic. To further explain, the Iroquois Confederation elected delegates and each delegate represented both a tribe and one of the matrilineal clans within the tribe. The chief were only allowed to become delegates, and every delegate had to meet the approval of both tribal and league councils. The women of his clan had the right to expel him from his office, if he lost the respect and trust of the people, or if he did not accomplish the tasks as a delegate. The Confederate lived a very democratic life, in which decisions were made by the whole league council unanimously.

#18: St. Augustine
ID: St. Augustine was the first lasting settlement established by Europeans in what is now the United States (It is in present day Florida.). It was built by the Spanish in 1565. St. Augustine was used for military and also for Franciscan Missionaries.

Historical Significance: St. Augustine played a big part in the Seminole Indian Wars. Part of it was used as a prison. The fort Castillo de San Marcos was never defeated.

#19: 16th Century African Slave Trade
ID: The slave trade grew dramatically in the 16th century due to rising European demand for workers to cultivate sugar cane. As the Europeans demanded more and more slaves the Africans went to war with each other to capture slaves and meet this demand in reward for European goods. The slaves mainly came from along the west coast of Africa, and at first in the 16th century, they were mainly transported to the Caribbean and South America.

Historical Significance:
Something that may seem completely unfathomable and inhumane now was just apart of everyday life until the American Civil War. It says something cold about human nature when entire races can trade other human beings and work them like they are nothing more then machines. African slavery quickly led to racism against African Americans, in which the Europeans thought they were less then human beings, and that they were equivalent to animals. It also puts down the belief that in more numbers comes more power, because in some places, African American slaves outnumbered the whites in the residing area, and the whites still had a strong handle on them.

#20: Charter Companies
ID: The charter companies were created by groups of English merchants in the mid-1500s. The name came from the charter given to them by the king, which allowed them to trade in a one region alone.

Historical Significance: The charter companies funded explorations and colonies in the New World. Many of the cities their settlers founded would become the political centers of the Thirteen Colonies and the Revolution. The charter companies helped to start American history.

#21: Richard Hakluyt
ID: Richard Hakluyt was an English clergyman and a propagandist of colonization that argued for the colonization of the Americas by the English.

Historical Significance: Mainy Richard Hakluyt convinced people of America's significance. He believed that colonizing America would in return increase jobs, increase resources the English were dependent on other countries for and decrease the poverty level in England. He also said America would be a great place to create new English markets further stimulating the economy and well-being of Englishmen.

#22: Subjugation of Ireland
ID: In the 1560s and 1570s, the English moved/migrated to the island Ireland. They captured territory and attempted to subdue the native population, believing that the Irish were “savages.” English society felt that the “barbaric” natives deserved to be suppressed, isolate, and if necessary, wiped out. Because of these feelings, “plantations” were established in hopes of creating a perfect English society. These were physically insolated within a “pale of settlement” and were peopled with English emigrants.

Historical Significance: The subjugation of Ireland was England’s first experience with colonization. The process used to subdue the natives in the island provided a guide and model for the later, similar interactions with the American Indians. As this experience also led to the assumption that English settlements in foreign lands had to keep to their own societies, away from the indigenous population, the “plantation” model was passed on to the American colonists as well. The natives of the New World were faced with foreigners who only desired wealth and further subjugation and so, faced with alien cruelties and epidemics, many perished dramatically.

#23: Spanish Armada
ID: The Spanish Armada was the major Spanish fleet that challenged the English Navy. It was assembled by King Phillip the II in 1558. He wanted to put an end to the English in America so he assembled the one of the largest fleets in military history, known as the Spanish Armada. The odds were overwhelmingly towards the Spanish, but the English won, by the precise maneuvering of their small fleet.

Historical Significance: This event was so important because it marked the end of Spanish naval domination. It was time for the English to step in. This event influenced later events because, since the English were now the dominant sea power, it enabled them to colonize the New World. In all, this event marked the era of the Conquistadores and started the era of English Colonization.

#24: Sir Humphrey Gilbert+Sir Walter Raleigh
ID: Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh were English explorers of the New World as well as half brothers. Gilbert obtained a 6 year charter from Elizabeth in 1578 and finally was able to go to Newfoundland and colonized it in 1583. As he was exploring the coast, however, a storm sank his ship. Sir Walter Raleigh saw his half brother die but was determined to succeed. He obtained a similar grant in 1584 and was attracted to the Roanoke lands, which is now North Carolina. Unable to secure funding from the queen, Raleigh had to ask for private sponsors.

Historical Significance: The two men started what would later be the colonizing frenzy by the English. They were the first of many more explorers later to colonize the New World for their monarchs. Although Gilbert's exploration was a tragic failure, Raleigh's first venture at Roanoke was a failure as well, leaving the settlers stranded and starved. The signifcance of this event is that it marked the beginning of the English colonization, and also the first colony in the modern day U.S.
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